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Trace Elements and Preconceptual Care (Foresight Article)



• Maternal Deficiency

Allergy, tooth decay, back pain, osteoporosis, insomnia, irritability, nervousness, tension, uneven heartbeat, indigestion, stomach cramps and spasms, constipation, pre-menstrual tension and cramping of the uterus.

• Fetal Deficiency

Rickets and later tooth decay. High raised palate.


• Maternal Deficiency

Allergy, impaired protein synthesis, enzyme deficiencies, tremor, twitching and convulsions, panic attacks, insomnia, uneven heartbeat, leg and foot cramps, depression, poor memory, confusion, disorientation, hyperactivity, irritability, anxiety, nightmares and increased sensitivity to noise. Stones may form in the kidneys.

• Fetal Deficiency

Congenital abnormalities, calcium deposits and other abnormalities of the heart cells, anorexia, convulsions and perinatal death.


• Maternal Deficiency

Enzyme deficiencies (allergy), poor fat metabolism, epilepsy, thought confusion, poor memory, poor thyroid function, depression. NB: after the birth, the manganese deficiency can lead to the rejection of the baby.

• Fetal Deficiency

Malformation of the inner ear, ataxia, bone malformation, lack of co-ordination, head retraction, tremor, lack of righting reflex.


• Maternal Deficiency

Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic kidney failure.

• Fetal Deficiency

Heart defects, kidney defects, liver defects, neonatal death.

Excess of nickel can also be toxic, but this has never been seen in Foresight testing. Nickel supplements are not available but kelp contains some nickel. Nickel is low in urinary tract infections.


• Maternal Deficiency

Muscle weakness, muscular dystrophy, swelling, internal haemorrhages, atrophy of the pancreas, liver necrosis, cataract, cancer, allergy to inhaled substances (eg dust mite, pollen, dandruff), asthma.

American research has linked selenium deficiency with chromosome damage, including Down’s syndrome. Foresight research appears to confirm this.

Selenium will combine with toxic metals and help to cleanse these from the body. We use this in combination with Vitamin C and Garlic.

It is interesting to note that fluoride is antagonistic to selenium. Studies in America have found a fourfold increase in Down’s Syndrome births where the water has been fluoridated.
Excessive supplementation of selenium, however, can be toxic.


• Maternal Deficiency

Poor maintenance of bones, muscles, eyes, organs, teeth. Poor liver function and carotene conversion. White spots on nails, stretch marks, lank hair, acne, painful knee and hip joints, cold extremities, lack of taste and smell, anorexia, body and breath odour. Lack of menstruation and ovulation (thus infertility). Where conception does take place, miscarriage or premature birth, insomnia and extreme fatigue. Extended parturition (labour fade). After birth: fatigue, post-partum depression, rejection of infant, lactation failure, poor wound healing and increased susceptibility to infections.

• Fetal Deficiency

Growth retardation, anorexia, diarrhoea, apathy, lethargy, sebhorrhoea, loss of hair, defects in eyes, kidneys, brain and bones (skeletal malformations). Spina bifida, cleft palate, heart defects. Faulty trunk and limb development, curvature of the spine, reduced brain size, heart problems and small eyes. Also undescended testicles or no testicles in the male. Later, this can manifest as allergic illness, eczema, learning difficulties and hyperactivity. Growth retardation, especially in the male.


• Maternal Deficiency

Fatigue, lethargy, increased susceptibility to cold, low libido, anorexia, slow pulse, low blood pressure, rapid weight gain, high blood cholesterol, heart disease and cancer.

• Fetal Deficiency

Growth and mental development are retarded.


• Maternal Deficiency

Infertility and possibly depression.

• Fetal Deficiency

Small birth weight and increased perinatal death..



• Maternal Deficiency

Porous bones, loss of hair, demyelination and anaemia.

• Fetal Deficiency

Depressed growth rate, depigmentation, anaemia, fine fragile bones, ataxia, small brain, perinatal mortality.

• Copper deficiency is very rare however.

Copper excess is much more common, resulting from the contraceptive pill or the fertility drugs. This can result in zinc and manganese deficiency with the resulting miscarriages, premature births, malformations and retardation.


• Maternal Deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency can give pernicious anaemia. Vitamin B12 deficiency may be present in vegetarians and vegans, in people taking cleansing programmes with high doses of vitamin C or eating a diet high in refined carbohydrates and/or alcohol.

• Fetal Deficiency

Problems are not recorded. The fetus has quite efficient mechanisms for storing Vitamin B12.


• Maternal Deficiency

Poor sugar handling, arteriosclerosis, hypertension and diabetes. Sugar and alcohol consumption reduces chromium.

• Fetal Deficiency

Eye abnormalities.

Possible link with later development of diabetes.



• Maternal Deficiency

Anaemia, weakness, shortage of breath, excessive fatigue, depression, confusion, poor memory and poor resistance to infection.

• Fetal Deficiency

Eye defects, bone defects, brain defects and neonatal mortality.

• Iron deficiency is very rare, however.

Iron excess can be toxic. Excessive supplementation can cause constipation and vomiting, and can lead to miscarriage. Recent work from Germany has linked excessive iron supplementation to neonatal jaundice.


• Maternal Deficiency

Acid urine, nervous irritability, disorientation, fatigue, listlessness, insomnia, muscle weakness, uneven heartbeat, constipation, cramping muscles, low blood sugar and coma.

• Fetal Deficiency

Possibly low blood sugar and/or constipation in the new born.



• Maternal Toxicity

Headaches, diarrhoea, fatigue, increased risk of cancer.

• Fetal Toxicity

Stillbirth, perinatal death, impaired weight gain.

Later children exhibit significantly impaired IQ, non-adaptive classroom behaviour, neuropsychological deficits, less favourable development through the first year of life.

Cadmium has a strong negative effect on verbal IQ and lead has a stronger effect on performance IQ.

Later children exhibit many minor health problems, allergic syndromes, eczema, epilepsy, hyperactivity, dyslexia. (These are not minor to the family or the child!)

This is one of a series of pages published by FORESIGHT, the Association for the Promotion of Pre-conceptual Care. The purpose of these documents is to make the great wealth of information that can be found in medical and other scientific journals available to prospective parents, health professionals or anyone else who does not have the time and/or the facilities to read them for themselves.

More:- Foresight Literature Summaries

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